Rule 1: Keep the modifier close to the word it modifies.
This is the simplest rule. Just put the modifiers in the right place! Of course, you might find yourself asking what the right place is. Generally, they need to be close to the word they change because modifiers love the words that they change! They want to be together all the time. Please don’t get in their way.
Here are a few examples of sentences with problems.
The man was holding a dog who was wearing a red jacket.
The factory employed 100 people that had a bad safety rating.
The boys visited some farm animals that go to my school.
As we’ve mentioned before, one-word modifiers (very, only, poor, quickly) often come before they word they change. Phrases usually come after the word they change. In either case, keep them close together.
So, how would you change my sample sentences?
Here are my categories. Check your answers against mine.
Skill: writing, public speaking
Feeling: happy, jealous, greedy, lonely
Aspect: weather patterns, funding for cancer research
Value: fairness, honesty, justice, freedom
Trait: positivity, greed, jealousy
Issue: crime, drought, cancer, drug abuse
Symbol: the bald eagle, the American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner
Talent: singing, dancing, performing
As you remember from earlier posts, when you write a research paper or a formal essay, you always need a thesis and a plan of attack. Plans of attack (and many other tasks related to paraphrasing) ask you to group, rephrase, or simplify your ideas into just a few words. Some people find this to be a little tricky, so I wanted to offer you a way to practice. Below, you will find a series of bolded words and italicized words. Italicized words are specific examples or illustrations. Bolded words are the categories. I want you to match examples with the correct category. There will be multiple examples for each category.
Skill, Feeling, Aspect, Value, Trait, Issue, Symbol, Talent
Singing, Happy, Positivity, Jealous, Greedy, Greed, The Bald Eagle, Lonely, The American Flag, Fairness, The Star-Spangled Banner, Honesty, Justice, Dancing, Writing, Public Speaking, Cancer, Freedom, Crime, Performing, Drought, Jealousy, Funding for Cancer Research, Weather Patterns, Drug Abuse
When you have your groups, you can share them in the comment box or check back Friday for my answers.
How persuasive are you? Practice your pitch structure by making short speeches on the prompts listed here. Review the video if you need a refresher on the four qualities of successful pitches.
1. What is the most useful item? Create a pitch which promotes your choice.
2. What is an important value or ethic? Support your choice.
3. Who deserves our support? Choose an individual or a group and create an argument.
4. What is a habit we should adopt? Support your choice.
5. What makes you a valuable employee or friend? Pitch yourself and support your argument.
How are this week’s vocabulary words used in the article posted below? Do you understand what you read?
Tips for Earning a Promotion
Many people have been asking us for advice on advancing their careers. We took it upon ourselves to investigate by asking bosses what they looked for when they promoted their employees. Some of the advice may contrast with tips you’ve heard, but, take it from us, these are the new workplace rules. We predict they will serve you well.
This is an audio recording from our Vocabulary Bootcamp course on Udemy.com. The recording discusses traditions around an American holiday. Listen to the recording and take notes. Try to summarize the speaker’s point of view in the comment box.
If you want to sign up for the Vocabulary Bootcamp course, contact us or visit Udemy to sign up directly.
East Bay ESL is an English language school for learners in the San Francisco East Bay.